Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria is categorized as eithergross or microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria occurs when blood in urine is visible to the eye. Microscopic hematuria is blood in the urine that is visible only under a microscope. Microscopic blood is most often discovered as part of a routine medical exam.
Causes of Hematuria
Hematuria can be related to several different factors.It is important to know that bleeding can happen at anywhere along the urinary tract including thekidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra and for men the prostate. Any hematuria, whether it is gross or microscopic should never be ignored. While blood in the urine is not always the sign of a serious disease or condition, it may be an indication of any of the following conditions:
● Urinary tract infection
● Prostate infection
● Cancer of the bladder, kidney, prostate or urethra
● Kidney disease
● Vaginal atrophy in post-menopausal woman
● Idiopathic (unable to determine cause)
● Injury to urinary tract
● Kidney stones or bladder stones
Diagnosis of Hematuria
To determine the cause of hematuria, a provider may order a series of diagnostic tests that may include some or all of the following:
● Blood tests including kidney function, PSA in men
● CT Urogram (special kind of CT scan to evaluate urinary tract)
● Intravenous pyelogram.
● A cystoscopy to examine the bladder and the urethra.
Treatment of Hematuria
The treatment for hematuria is determinedby the underlyingcause as well as the patient’s symptoms, medical history and condition. Management can include medical or surgical interventions. Hematuria can be the result of other conditions, so it is important to discuss with your provider when blood in the urine is present to determine the cause and to decide on treatment as needed.